President Vladimir Putin said at the ceremony that Netrebko is "a bright new star on the Russian and world musical stage."
"The Russian vocal school was always a great source of talent and it is pleasing to see that this wonderful tradition continues in this new century," he added.
Accepting the award, Netrebko said, "I would also like to thank my wonderful teachers and the people who believed in me and without whom I would not have been able to achieve all I have. Now, when I perform on the world's most well-known opera stages, I am very proud to be from Russia and I am glad that the Russian vocal school lies at the foundation of my education."
Born in Krasnodar, Russia, Netrebko studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory and won the 1993 Glinka Competition. Once a floor cleaner at the Mariinsky Theater, she made her debut at the opera house in 1994 and rapidly became a critical darling as well as a popular success.
Other recipients of the State Prize included poet Isabella Akhatovna Akhmadulina, physicist Ludwig Faddeyev, and archeologists Vyacheslav Molodin and Natalya Polosmak.