The work, known as the "Life" Symphony, was begun by Tchaikovsky around 1891 and abandoned toward the end of his life.
Tchaikovsky left a fully scored first movement, with sketches and themes for the second and third movements.
The Moscow-based Tchaikovsky Fund has commissioned Russian composers and researchers to complete the work as Tchaikovsky might have finished it, based on their study of the composer's patterns and composition methods.
The completed will be performed by the Symphony Orchestra of Russia, conducted by Tomomi Nishimoto, at the Tchaikovsky State House Museum in the Russian town of Klin.
"I am very honored to be given the role of conducting the first performance," Nishimoto said. "I think this means that the sacred door of the country Russia has been opened to me, a Japanese."
She added that she will approach the work "while feeling the light and shadow of Tchaikovsky, as a musician and as a human being."