Anderson will play recurring character Danny Pink — a teacher at Coal Hill School where companion Clara Oswald (Jenna Coleman) also teaches — in the eighth season of the BBC science fiction program.
"For the fourth time in 'Doctor Who' history, Coal Hill School is coming to the aid of the TARDIS," head writer and executive producer Steven Moffat told Deadline.
Coal Hill School has been a recurring setting on "Doctor Who"; it was the setting of the majority of the first episode, "An Unearthly Child," which broadcast in November 1963. It was also featured in the 50th anniversary special "The Day of the Doctor."
Anderson has appeared on Broadway in The History Boys. His TV work includes "Emmerdale," "Doctors" and "Gavin & Stacey," and his film credits include "The History Boys," "Undefeated" and "Pleasure Island."