Presented by MTC, Constellations will begin previews Dec. 16, prior to an official opening Jan. 13, 2015. Michael Longhurst will direct.
Here's how the production is billed: "One relationship. Infinite possibilities. An explosive new play about the boundless potential of a first encounter, free will, and friendship."
Constellations reunites Gyllenhaal with Payne and Longhurst, who are also making their Broadway debuts with the production. The three previously collaborated on the American premiere of If There Is I Haven't Found It Yet.
Additional cast and creative team will be announced at a later date.
Constellations opened at the Royal Court's Jerwood Theatre Upstairs before transferring to the West End, where it won the Evening Standard Award for Best Play and received an Olivier Award nomination for Best Play.
Gyllenhaal made his New York stage debut in 2012 starring in If There Is I Haven't Found It Yet. His stage credits also include This is Our Youth in the West End. The Academy Award nominee's film work includes "Brokeback Mountain," "Zodiac," "Love & Other Drugs" and "Donnie Darko."
Payne's writing includes Wanderlust, Sophocles' Electra, Lay Down Your Cross and The Same Deep Water As Me.