The law, which seeks to suppress a form of profanity-laden slang known as "mat," will impose fines of up to 2,500 rubles ($70) for individuals and $1,400 for organizations for cursing in public performances, including on television and in theatre.
Bloomberg reports that a copy of the legislation posted on a government website states that warning labels will be printed on copies of books, CDs and movies; new productions and movies will not be granted distribution licenses.
The law represents Putin's conservative ideology as he seeks to prevent the spread of Western ideas, which he blames for fomenting dissent against his rule.
Last year, Putin signed laws banning the adoption of Russian-born children by foreign gay couples and blocking distribution of information on "non-traditional sexual relations" to minors.
Bloomberg cites the Moscow Times as reporting that in 2013, the Institute of Russian Language at the Russian Academy of Sciences compiled a list of four words that constitute swearing: "two depict male and female reproductive organs, one describes the process of copulation and the last refers to a promiscuous woman."