Davis will lead performances from October 23-November 13, with Richard Buckley leading subsequent performances as previously planned.
In a statement, general director William Mason pointed out that Davis will also be conducting performances of Mozart's Don Giovanni, Wagner's Dan Rheingold, and Janšcek's The Cunning Little Vixen in October and November.
"Lyric Opera is fortunate indeed to have a music director with the ability to take on the herculean conducting assignment of these four diverse masterworks at one time," Mason said. "The breadth of repertoire in which Sir Andrew excels, and his musical brilliance, are unique."
Davis also filled in last month at the Chicago Symphony when conductor Daniel Barenboim was forced to withdraw because of a back injury.
The Lyric's revival of Aida stars soprano Andrea Gruber, mezzo Dolora Zajick, and tenor Richard Margison through November 13, with Indra Thomas, Olga Borodina, and Salvatore Licitra from November 19-December 5.