The 27-year-old conductor begins a three-year term in September 2005. He replaces Michel Plasson, the orchestra's longtime director, who stepped down in 2003.
Sokhiev was "unanimously acclaimed both by the musicians of the Orchestre du Capitole and by the public," Toulouse mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc said.
Sokhiev was trained at the St. Petersburg Conservatory and has made frequent appearances at the Mariinsky Theatre. In 2003, he was appointed music director of the Welsh National Opera, but resigned the post suddenly in August 2004.