On Friday, June 19, NY's Second Circuit Court of Appeal affirmed a lower court decision that Lynn Thomson was not an official co-author of the Broadway musical Rent, denying the dramaturg an automatic 16 percent share of the royalties. The decision was handed down by justices Guido Calabresi, Wilfred Feinberg and Myron Bright.
But Thomson isn't walking away from the battle. Instead, on June 22, 11:30 AM, she filed an injunction against the producers of Rent, threatening to remove all material from Rent that she claims to have written herself. In a statement explaining her lawsuit, Thomson said, "The Federal Appeals Court has confirmed that even if I am not a statutory "co-author" of all of Rent, I may `automatically retain exclusive copyright interests in the material [I] contributed.'"
Playbill On-Line continues to seek comment from the attorney for Jonathan Larson's estate, Orin Snyder of Parcher, Hayes and Liebman, but received no return call. Snyder has made a rule of not commenting on the case to reporters. Larson family lawyer Jay Harris also declined comment on the specifics of the case but did say that Thomson's three-pronged suit against Rent's Broadway producers, publishers and the movie company will likely be consolidated and argued as one case by the aforementioned Parcher firm.
One voice recently raised in the dispute, coming down (mostly) on the Larson family side, is that of original cast-member Anthony Rapp, currently recreating the role of Mark with Rent's London company. Rapp told Playbill On-Line (June 25), "When all this started going down, I was very sad because no one would would ever dispute that Lynn deserves more than she got, more than $50 a week. And if Jonathan had been alive when we moved to Broadway, he would have advocated on her behalf to reap the benefits. At the same time, she made a deal for herself. No, it wasn't a good deal, and she made it before turned into a multi million dollar success. But we all had things we didn't love about our deals at first, then we had the opportunity to renegotiate. To sue Jonathan's family for co-authorship when he wasn't a few months in the grave seemed incredibly cruel."
Rapp added, "I know the Larsons attempted to settle several times, and I know they were generous settlements. So this has blown into something it never should have blown into. And then all these other theatre people jumped on the bandwagon to support the dramaturg... And I really don't blame Jonathan's family for not being aware at the time; they were going through an incredible amount of stuff. We're all still upset about it, and I've spoken with Al Larson and Michael Grief and Jim Nicola and musical director Tim Weill, and other cast-members about it." Asked more specifically about Thomson's contribution to Rent, Rapp said, "Maybe she did write out lyrics, although to my knowledge she'd never written lyrics before. Now Rent's lyrics from 1994-95 took a huge leap, but they all still sounded like Jonathan. And I knew him pretty well. I find it hard to believe [Thomson] wrote whole passages of lyrics that scanned the way they did and rhymed the way they did. I mean, we all made many suggestions and possibly copyrightable contributions to Rent, if structure and character changes are copyrightable. We were all part of the process together, all collaborating together. Now, Jonathan was very clear with Billy Aronson giving him title page credit [for additional original concept and additional lyrics]. So he was conscious of who was being included but also conscious that it was his piece.
"I don't dispute her claim to have written sections of the show," said Rapp, "but I do take issue with some of the parts she claims were hers alone." For example, Thomson claims to have written "significant portions" of the song, "What You Own." Rapp counters, "Back in the summer of 1995, when I was in Oklahoma doing Twister, Jonathan played me a version of `What You Own.' He didn't even meet Lynn until after I'd left Oklahoma."
Continued Rapp, "The confusing thing is I've written stuff myself and collaborated and had feedback given...who can tell? Jonathan's not here, so how can she support her claims? I don't know what proof she has, or what proof he'd have if he were here? I don't know what a judge can even do."
More philosophically, Rapp concluded, "I do wish this would all resolve itself peacefully and happily. Maybe this will improve the negotiating powers of dramaturgs, which wouldn't be a bad thing."
Asked just exactly what Thomson alleges she contributed to Rent (and, therefore, what she could keep producers from using), attorney Smith told Playbill On-Line (June 24), "Thomson's lyrics, which actually are only a small fraction of what she added to the play, amount to 9 per cent of the script, or 1,011 words out of 10,890. Perhaps more important, however, are the changes she made to the plot, structure, theme and character elements, which contributed to Rent winning a Tony Award for "Best Book... A 20-page list of changes in language, plot, theme, character details, structure and other elements of Rent is on file in her name with the United States Copyright Office, which has granted her a Certificate of Registration."
Among those alleged contributions:
In the title song, she claims the only words by Larson are those in brackets:
"How do you leave the past behind, when it keeps finding ways to get to your heart?
It reaches way down deep and tears you inside out til you're torn apart
How can you connect in an age where [strangers] landlords, lovers [your own blood cells] betray?
What binds the fabric together when the [raging, shifting] winds of change keep ripping away?
Draw a line in the sand and then make a stand."
Attorney Smith also argues that Thomson suggested, and then helped implement, a stronger story-line with connecting plots, rather than a looser "collage structure" initially conceived by Larson. Thomson also takes credit "for changing of the entire tone of the opening of the show to one that is positive and affirming... rather than dwelling on their miseries." To that end, Thomson also allegedly persuaded Larson to replace a song about writer's block ("Right Brain") with the more optimistic "One Song: Glory."
The Joanne character, too, is allegedly a co-creation with Thomson. She claims credit for writing "most of the lines and lyrics in the tune, `Take Me or Leave Me'" and a significant portion of the song, "What You Own."
Thomson had the option of appealing the June 19 ruling to the Supreme Court but, according to her attorney, Russell Smith, she'd prefer "not to have to wait years for a decision" and try the lower court lawsuit first.
Smith also told Playbill On-Line, "Even before all this went to court, Lynn would have settled for 2 percent of the author's share, but the Larsons turned her down."
As for the decision to file an injunction, attorney Smith explained it this way: "Lynn has rights to her own material that are independent of Larson's rights, and the Federal Court of Appeals gave us a green light to proceed on that basis. The Court knocked down two of the main arguments against Thomson's claim of independent rights. They said Judge Lewis A. Kaplan's earlier decision -- that she was not a legal co-author -- doesn't necessarily mean she isn't an author. Also, they ruled that the leading precedent, the Childress Case, does not bar a claim by Thomson for her independent copyright. But the question was not decided of whether Thomson can claim her own material in Rent. She has to file an injunction in order to do that. In that way, they've left it to the lower courts to decide whether Lynn will prevail."
Thomson filed the lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. She's seeking an injunction requiring that her copyrighted material be pulled from all the various versions (stage productions, proposed film, cast album, books, etc.) and formats of Rent.
Said attorney Smith, "The producers and distributors of Rent have two weeks to explain to a Federal judge why Rent should not be shut down. This forces them, finally, to deal with Thomson's claims. All she seeks is a small royalty, a title page listing of her dramaturgical credit, and the right to quote from her own materials in any book she might care to write."
Asked if the lawsuit would really bring Rent to a halt, Smith told Playbill On-Line, "I seriously doubt the producers would let that happen. And Lynn has no desire to do it, she doesn't even want the power to shut Rent down. This whole thing is just a necessary means of enforcing her rights. She just wants more money and to be treated decently."
Thomson's lawsuit follows a May 18 counter-suit brought against her by the family of late Rent composer Larson, seeking an injunction and damages. Thomson moved to dismiss the suit; the Larsons have so far filed for two extensions. In Smith's opinion, the Larson counter-suit is "dead in the water" because the court just "shot down the two premises that tried to say Thomson has no rights."
Smith wrote to Playbill On-Line (May 19) to say the Larson family's counter-suit is "the theatre business equivalent of a SLAPP suit (a legal action to chill speech)... In this baseless, frivolous, morally defective lawsuit, the heirs of Jonathan Larson are attempting to intimidate and punish Jonathan's closest collaborator on the book and lyrics, merely because she has said both privately and publicly what a trial judge and at least two appellate judges already have said: that she wrote substantial and copyrightable portions of Rent, and because she continues to demand that her rights in the play be honored."
Smith felt the lawsuit came at a time when the appellate judges were leaning favorably towards Thomson's case, and this was an "unseemly effort to obtain better results." The counter-suit also alleges that Thomson's statements about her copyright have disrupted plans for the Rent movie.
Smith and Thomson immediately filed a motion to dismiss the suit, with Smith telling Playbill On-Line, "Lynn Thomson will not be intimidated, and she will not back down."
Thomson has been suing the Larson estate for royalties from the musical Rent. Officially designated as a "dramaturg" on the musical, Thomson claims she wrote significant portions of the text, making her entitled to the rights and percentages of a co-author. Larson's family disagreed. Last July, the New York District Court acknowledged that Thomson helped write portions of Rent but ruled against calling Thomson's contribution a legal co-authorship.
Oral arguments began in late March in the Federal appeal, which claims that Thomson was a co-author of the show, even if she doesn't have an official contract saying so. The Larson family has asserted from the start that Thomson is getting the fee and credit to which she agreed, and deserves no extra.
Smith said he was heartened, however, by "the language and the tenor of the judges' comments" during the appeal. He notes that presiding appellate Judge Calabresi has said it can be "taken for granted" that the lower court ruled that Lynn "wrote" portions of Rent which are "independently copyrightable" and "non-de minimis" (substantial).
According to Smith, grosses for Rent have already topped $150 million, yet Thomson gets just $50 a week for her dramaturgic contributions.
Asked to give his thoughts about the trial so far (May 7), Larson attorney Orin Snyder (of Parcher, Hayes & Liebman) preferred not to comment on the proceedings.
Here's the back-story on the Rent trial:
"We will appeal immediately." Those were Smith's words when Thomson lost her suit seeking co-authorship and financial recompense, July 23, 1997, after a three-day trial in New York District Court. On Aug. 27, 1997 Smith officially filed his appeal. On Oct. 10, Smith filed his appeal brief. The appeal is being heard by a trio of judges, rather than the "en banc," whole court Thomson's camp would have preferred.
On Jan. 2, 1998, the Federal Appeals Court accepted a brief from the National Writers Union in Thomson's behalf. According to attorney Smith, "The Writers Union bases its argument on the trial judge's findings that Jonathan Larson expressly asked Lynn Thomson `to write,' in a conversation during which, according to testimony credited by the Court, he asked her in essence to serve as playwright, and that Thomson not only wrote `copyrightable' material, but `was a significant force in turning the studio production script into the hit that Rent became.'"
In researching the appeal brief, Smith said he discovered another point he'll raise for the Court: "One reason the court has found works to be `joint works' is that the alternative can be unthinkable. Imagine if Lynn Thomson would be able to claim rights only to what she added to Rent -- and could, in fact, be allowed to pull that work from the play. An author is allowed to stop anyone from using his or her work! The court is playing with fire, because you can see a future situation where, say, the guts of "One Song Glory" would have to be taken out, CDs would have to be stopped, etc. It's a right she's loathe to enforce and has absolutely no intention of doing. Especially because a co author doesn't have that right."
"We're confident the Court will realize how crazy it is to make the word "joint" be dependent on the legal intentions one of the contributors," said Smith. "Larson left no will, so the heirs get all of his copyrights. That's the law, and we have no problem with that. But it's an example of where the law doesn't look at intentions that weren't put down in writing."
On Aug. 20, 1997 playwrights Craig Lucas and Tony Kushner, dramaturg Morgan Jenness, and Yale Drama School's Mark Bly all signed a statement directed towards the media, supporting Thomson: "We appeared as witnesses in the Lynn Thomson Rent case. You may not be aware that the judge completely accepted Lynn Thomson's claim to have written significant and copyrightable portions of Rent -- since the New York Times and several other major periodicals did not report the fact... This is an important decision which impacts directly on the lives of many of us; the central ethical issue is that of collaborators in the theatre being equitably remunerated for labor contributed."
"It's a decision tailor-made for the Supreme Court," Smith told Playbill On-Line in July. "They've never debated the nature of joint works and who should be rewarded for their contributions. The judge found she was telling the truth. He found the Larsons were minimizing her contributions and lying about her."
Continued Smith, "We lost, but the judge found in favor of Thomson on every factual point. Her memory might have failed her, and he couldn't be sure her total contribution to Rent was 9 percent, but he said it was close to that. He found it was a copyrightable contribution and that Thomson was a significant force in making Rent a hit."
Smith elaborated further, Aug. 22, 1997 saying, "The judge said Lynn created property, but the Larson heirs argue that he's essentially taken that property away from her and given it to the Larson estate. We have this sort of vacuum where her rights went into; there's nothing in the law that provides for that. The Childress decision, on which this decision was based, says you have to apply the definition of two people getting together to merge compositions as `co authors,' and that requires a manifestation of the concept of joint authorship. But the court doesn't say what the criteria are to prove it, which is interpreting Childress as being more strict than it is."
Thomson also discussed her suit with Playbill On-Line, July 25, 1997, noting the wavy boundary between authorship and dramaturgy: "The case has always been based in the fact that I did actual writing. Many dramaturgs do that. I've never asked for credit other than as a dramaturg. I did not contribute half the play; if I had contributed half, I would have taken the term `co-author.' Also, under the Copyright Act, someone who writes something with somebody else OR creates something with someone else -- and it doesn't have to be 50 percent -- is still co-author."
"It's been disturbing how my claim has been misrepresented. I think the case does say there are dramaturgs making massive contributions but not receiving due credit. I hope it will continue to be important that I, as a dramaturg, stood up and said you can't just take my work and use it and give me zero dollars."
Asked if she saw a correlation between her suit and that of Joe Mantello, who wishes copyrightable director's credit for his work on Love! Valour! Compassion!, Thomson said, "I'm for his suit, but my belief on the Mantello case...it's never been established that his directorial work is copyrightable. I'm NOT trying to prove that all dramaturgy is copyrightable. It's just that in this case, I wrote about nine percent of the words. Plus I provided solutions that are verbatim in the text -- rather than just the standard dramaturgical work of asking questions and getting responses."
Thomson also chastised the Dramatists Guild for siding with the Larson estate. "There's a huge bigotry revealed against dramaturgs by the Guild. They attack me because I'm called a `dramaturg' rather than `co-author.' And yet, this union claims to represent people who write, and they're saying it doesn't matter that I wrote. That's a deeply disturbing prejudice. Essentially, I can't drink at the same water fountain as authors because because I'm credited as a dramaturg."
Responding to these criticisms against the Dramatists Guild, council member Jeffrey Sweet wrote to Playbill On-Line (May 20, 1998) to correct Thomson's designation of the DG as a union. "A union is an organization that protects the rights of employees. Dramatists are not employees. We do not work for the producers... We maintain our copyrights and have final say over our texts." Sweet contrasted this licensing arrangement with that of the Writer's Guild of America, which represents writers for film and television. The latter authors sell their copyrights and may be replaced at the discretion (or whim) of the producer.
Asked if her suit against a major Broadway entity has put a freeze on her career, Thomson, head of the dramaturgy department at Brooklyn College, replied, "I haven't experienced blacklisting yet. Just after the lawsuit was filed I was hired to work on The Batting Cage by Joan Ackerman, set to go Off-Broadway this fall. I don't know what the future will bring."
Continued Thomson, "Every profession in the theatre has had to fight this fight. I went back to a great book, "The Revolt Of The Actor," about the Actors' Strike of 1919, and you would not believe the rhetoric. This was because actors had the temerity to ask to be paid for rehearsals. Even then they were saying, `If we turn artists into mere laborers, it'll destroy the profession.' Everybody's got their bit of the pie in this business, and they don't want to give it up."
"But here's the broad picture," continued Thomson. "If dramaturgs are not treated fairly, and no one says `yes, you should be paid for the work you did,' it could become a nightmare. The American theatre has become increasingly dependent on these people helping playwrights. When I asked to be put on the title page of the Broadway production, I was told "no." Why? `Because we don't have to.' Just because I didn't have clout behind me."
"I do think this lawsuit will help dramaturgs. We are not second class citizens, we have equal rights under the law and must stand up for that. Under no circumstances would my winning this case mean that all dramaturgs would be considered to create copyrightable material. The media has perpetuated that, but it's just not true. Dramaturgy and writing are not mutually exclusive, even if there are a percentage of dramaturgs who do both. The jobs overlap but are not identical. And copyright is a fundamental right to own what you create. In forming the last copyright act, there was a movement to put in the law the need for a written contract, but that was defeated. Now the law simply says that if two people create something, they both own it. It isn't my responsibility to prove in writing we had a deal; if New York Theatre Workshop didn't want to consider me as a co-writer, it was their responsibility to put in a work-for-hire clause."
Attorney Smith told Playbill On-Line (July 24, 1997), "The judge agreed that Larson told Thomson, "Of course I want you to help me write this,' and he found that Larson told her, `I would never claim credit for what you wrote.' All those findings are perfect for going into the appellate court and saying `when someone helps make the play a hit, they don't get zero royalties.'"
According to Smith, the Kaplan decision puts too much burden of proof on collaborators, forcing them to imagine too far ahead the results of their project. "To impose a burden on a couple of artists saying that both of them have to prove they both understood going into the project that they both could do movie deals is just not the burden of the law and of common sense. I can't wait to get to three appellate judges unafraid of being reversed, who can say with confidence that copyright statutes are designed to reward artists for contributing copyrightable material."
Continued Smith, "This judge didn't even address the other copyrightable contributions Thomson made. His reason for ruling against us was the Childress Case , which requires there be an intention of joint authorship. But most artists don't have lawyers. This is too much to require people to prove. The judge made it obvious he wanted to rule for Thomson but could not because of this narrow decision. We were hoping to win but we got the perfect decision to take up on appeal, because he found with us on the facts and on a crucial legal point: Thomson contributed copyrightable material. I can't believe the appellate court would say she's entitled to zero. The judge said she was a significant force in making this play a hit."
Smith added, "The $10,000 Lynn received had nothing to do with her work with Jonathan. That money was for the changes made to bring the show to Broadway from NY Theatre Workshop. For co-writing Rent she received $2,000; for her Broadway polishing, she now gets $50 a week. That's as opposed to hundreds of thousands and millions of dollars other people in the show are getting. It's an outrage, and I think the judge knew that. But I guess he feels it isn't his place to make the sort of decision that would have the commercial theatre establishment feel the case is upsetting the apple cart."
According to Rent spokesperson Jim Byk, of the Richard Kornberg office, Larson's deal with NYTW was not the same as Thomspon's; his payment was $8,000 pus a percentage of the gross of any extension at NY Theatre Workshop. Thomson's attorney Russell Smith said, "Everyone else that was involved at her level is receiving large compensation. Lynn Thomson can't even pay her rent with the amount of money she received."
"Opposing attorney Peter Parcher did a wonderful job," said Smith. "He got Lynn up on the stand and she didn't remember certain lyrics to 'One Song Glory.' But you know what? Jim Nicola, a witness for the other side, said he made as many contributions as Thomson did. I asked him on cross examination to name one -- and he said, `I have to look at the script.' Exactly what Lynn said. As for 'One Song Glory,' her main contribution was in saying 'we need a song here, and she contributed some of the lines.'"
Reached July 23, Orin Snyder, a partner in the firm representing the Larson estate, had an understandably different take on the trial. He told Playbill On-Line, "We won. It was total vindication of our position. The judge agreed Jonathan Larson is the sole author of Rent, and there was no way he intended Thomson as a co-author. She's not entitled to be considered an author. For the family, it was never about money; it was always about the son's legacy. It's not a case about dramaturgs; it's a case about Jonathan Larson and the authorship of Rent. Dramaturgs are dramaturgs and playwrights are playwrights."
After the close of trial business on July 22, 1997, Snyder, an attorney with the firm of Parcher, Hayes & Liebman, could hardly contain his (now prophetic) excitement. He had told Playbill On-Line, "Tomorrow it's over. And the court has indicated there could be a ruling from the bench."
Thomson claimed she was underpaid for her work with Larson on the musical that helped turn Rent into not only an Off-Broadway hit but also a long-running Broadway blockbuster and cash cow.
Snyder reported that on the stand July 22, Thomson "could supply no notes of lyrics she contends she wrote and couldn't recite lyrics from the songs."
On July 21, defense attorney Parcher queried Thomson on the stand, "Have you any written documentation of just how much you contributed to the show?"
Thompson answered, "In exact words, [Larson] never said, `you are co author,' and I never asked him. But we knew what we were doing...Money is not part of what this is about. In terms of storytelling, character development, Jon needed my help." According to reports, Thomson later told the court she collaborated with Larson on 9 percent of the lyrics and 48 percent of the recitative-style libretto.
In her suit, Thomson claimed she wrote more than a third of the musical's book and rewrote many of Larson's lyrics to give the overall show a more uplifting, energetic spirit.
Snyder, speaking for the Larson estate, stated, "There is absolutely no evidence that Jonathan Larson ever intended to treat any human being as his co-author. That includes plantiff Thomson, whom he regarded solely as a dramaturg." Snyder said that in contracts and in computer documents that Larson gave to NYTW "Jonathan is always referred to and refers to himself as sole author."
"At all times," Synder went on, "Jonathan acted as if this was his play. It was his life, his baby. He gave it seven years of his life. The idea that in his final moments he would give it over to someone else is simply impossible."
Asked if there were any surprises in Thomson's testimony and theatre luminaries who came forward to speak on her behalf, Synder said, "Not really. We knew what the evidence was in advance, so we were prepared."
Tony Kushner, who wrote the Tony and Pulitzer-winning Angels In America and Craig Lucas, author of Prelude To A Kiss were among those who testified hat Thomson "transformed" Rent. Robert Brustein, head of the American Repertory Theatre, and Bernard Gersten of Lincoln Center Theatre have come forward for the defense (Larson estate).
The New York Post reported earlier that the Larson family offered a sum reported to be $100,000 to settle out of court, but Thomson refused and then made a counter-offer that was turned down by the family. Rent spokesperson Byk told Playbill On-Line (July 25, 1997) that no actual sum was ever discussed. "Thomson came to the family with her request and they offered one percent of their royalties, which she rejected. Later on she started making her claim -- she says in late April as the show was opening, but the Larson family claims wasn't until the latter part of August -- and then the family offered her two percent, which she again turned down and started making additional demands." Attorney Parcher had argued that Thomson's contributions were fully covered in her contract with Larson.
The trial has led many in and out of theatre to wonder what exactly does a dramaturg do. Typically, they work with writers, suggesting ideas and solutions to perceived problems, and editing the work. Thomson is referred to in Rent's official billing as dramaturg, not co-author.