The ballet, called Constant Speed and choreographed by Mark Baldwin, will premiere in May at London's Sadler's Wells. It will be Baldwin's first work of choreography as the company's artistic director.
The occasion is the 100th anniversary of the scientist's publication of three seminal papers, including those treating the theory of relativity and Brownian motion.
Jerry Cowhig, managing director of the Institute's publishing company, said of the collaboration, "Dance is an expressive medium, and it will be ideal for abstract concepts like the theories of Einstein on everything from tiny atoms to the dynamics of the whole cosmos... I am confident this new work will trigger many people's curiosity about physics in Einstein Year."
Baldwin is being advised by Ray Rivers, a physics professor, on the technical aspects of the theories, according to the BBC. The choreographer said he thought the commission was "an inspired choice, and a testament to how the diverse areas of art and science can work together."
An extensive program of educational outreach will accompany the premiere, with materials created for both dance and science teaching.
The Rambert Dance Company, Britain's oldest dance company, was founded in 1926 by Marie Rambert as Ballet Rambert. Baldwin succeeded Christopher Bruce as the company's artistic director in December 2002.